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The city of Radripal in Vudra.

Impossible Kingdoms of Vudra
More than a hundred mahajanapadas, or semi-independent kingdoms ruled by rajahs in service of the maharajah
Vudrani (singular and plural)
Thousands of Vudran deities, including Irori
Source: The Inner Sea World Guide, pg(s). 206 (1E)
Sixty Feet Under, pg(s). 66
ff. (2E)

Vudra (pronounced VOO-drah)1 (also known as Vandu)2 is a vast peninsula extending from southeastern Casmaron with a total area nearly equal to that of Avistan.3 Vudra is home to the Vudrani, a human ethnicity known for their gregariousness. Also known as the Impossible Kingdoms, Vudra consists of more than one hundred mahajanapadas: semi-independent kingdoms ruled by rajahs. These rajahs in turn serve the maharajah, an emperor-like figure descended from Khiben-Sald, who in his lifetime spent a decade as an honored guest of the ancient Garundi wizard-king Nex.4

Most recent contact between Vudra and the Inner Sea region comes as a direct result of Vudrani now dwelling on the Isle of Jalmeray, located in the Obari Ocean between the countries of Nex and Qadira.54


The history of Vudra, and of Golarion as a whole, is told in the Mizravratta Brahmodya, dictated to the sage Balazastar by the goddess Likha.67 According to this account, as the goddess Vudravati walked across Golarion, she was courted by twin brothers Obari and Embaral. Though she took both as lovers, they fought so fiercely out of jealousy that Vudravati feared they would kill each other and wreak havoc across the world. To separate them until they could reconcile, she lay between them and went to sleep, her body forming the land of Vudra. She birthed children of both Obari and Embaral while in this slumber, who are believed to be the Vudrani peoples of today. This account claims that Vudra has been in existence longer than Golarion's continents were in their current places.7 Most foreign scholars, however, dismiss such claims as exaggeration.4

During the Age of Destiny, new civilizations formed city-states—early mahajanapadas—in the Dhavala River basin. Endless wars between them strained resources and raged across Vudra until Irori's ascension drew the entire subcontinent's attention and respect.7

Early history

By the middle 300s AR, Vudra was culturally united, but politically split amongst a "hundred" kingdoms of varying degrees of interdependence. The Spawn of Rovagug called Kothgaz, the Dance of Disharmony came upon the chaotic region and wrought much destruction. The legendary psychic Vanitapati led the defense of this land, channelling the collective will of countless psychics, occultists, sorcerers, and common people. In a battle that supposedly cost a million Vudrani lives, the hero-priests cast the Spawn into the ocean and boiled it, weakening it to the point where the creature's heart could be extracted. The heart was cut into 101 pieces and not all are still to be found in Vudra.78


Two centuries later in 530 AR,8 the "jungle princess" Chhaya nearly completed Vudra's unification until the prince Khiben-Sald, who claimed descent from Vanitapati, decapitated Chhaya to expose a rakshasa scheme to install her as their puppet. He instead declared himself maharaja, founded Indapatta as Vudra's capital, and established a powerful centralized government through political mastery.487 In 563 AR, Khiben-Sald led a fleet west to Jalmeray, then a part of the magical realm of Nex.9

By Khiben-Sald's death in 597 AR, Vudra was one of the most powerful empires on Golarion, and his descendants have held the title of maharajah in the ensuing millennia.7

Imperial Vudra

Following in Khiben-Sald's example of demonstrating international strength, Maharani Sitavati established a treaty with Kelesh in 1490 AR. In 2187 AR, Maharajah Kumarkal established trade relations with Tian Xia.7

In 2822 AR, the Vudrani returned to Jalmeray, wrested control of the island from the Arclords of Nex, and established it as a permanent colony in the Inner Sea region.10

In 4275 AR, rogue occultists tried and failed to replicate Vanitapati's psychic channelling, causing a tsunami to strike the eastern Vudran coast that killed tens of thousands.107

When Aroden died in 4606 AR, the retreating oceans exposed a massive land bridge connecting southern Vudra to remote islands filled with fissures that unleashed thousands of aberrations. Mahajanapadas established a tenuously fortified front that has held, if desperately, since.7

Inner Sea region explorers

The great explorer Selmius Foster of the Pathfinder Society blazed a trade route from Absalom to Vudra in 4320 AR. He perished ten years later, in 4330 AR, on the island of Bhopan while continuing his voyages into the east.11

House Arkona of Korvosa became a major trading concern between Avistan and Vudra after their final gamble of sending a trading vessel in 4458 AR—dubbed the Reprieve—proved more profitable than their wildest dreams. The Arkonans continued to send ships until 4708 AR.12

Rajput Shivji Shashibhushan, a necromancer, constructed the Palace of Ivory and Bone in 4465 AR, but the rajahs finally defeated him and razed his jungle stronghold in 4505 AR.13


A Vudrani man.

Vudra is commonly divided into nine geographic regions:


Vudra maintains an uneasy peace with Kelesh, and while it has faced growing tensions in recent times, neither side is eager for open conflict with each other.7


A Vudran ratfolk practitioner of ranatagi.

The Vudran people have a reputation for being consummate exaggerators and embellishers, a trait that would make them unbearable were it not for their constant good cheer and charisma.3 Beside the native Vudrani humans, Vudra is also home to Kelish peoples,14 half-elves,17 cambions18 (particularly faultspawn, spitespawn, and beastbrood),19202122 simian vanaras,14 ophidian vishkanyas,14 garudas,23 ratfolk,2414 rhino-headed kashrishis,14 curse-twisted ratajins,14 and rakshasas.25 Janni are often bound into service for Vudran nobles.26 The god-hating fiends known as asura are particularly common in Vudra, with its thousand gods the lands are rife with the religious ruins that asuras favour using for their lairs.27

Numerous Askedhaki catfolk also roam Vudra, making a living as wandering traders. They often congregate in roving caravans; the warriors of these caravans take it upon themselves to hunt down any creatures that prey upon the people of Vudra, including tigers and rakshasas, in particular.28 Unfortunately, due to their striped fur and fondness for expensive jewellery, the Askedhaki catfolk are sometimes mistaken for the tiger-headed raja rakshasas. To avoid this, Askedhaki will often incorporate holy symbols and blessed items into their outfits as these objects are an anathema to any rakshasa.29


Vudrani ethnicities are numerous, and though subtle to outsiders, they are clearly recognized by other Vudrani. Three ethnicities dominate in numbers:


The Dhavala populate most of Vudra, especially the Western Ghats, but originated in its central plateau.14


Mountaineering Parbatkay live hard lives in walled mountain settlements or remote pagodas in Vudra's northern mountains.14


The more nomadic, equestrian Banjarey travel the Narhari Desert as proud, independent families unsworn to any mahajanapada.14


The symbol of Irori, the Perfect Human, head of the Vudran pantheon.

Vudrani society employs a system of four primary, non-hierarchical castes—artisans, priests, scholars, and warriors—into which each Vudrani is born. While modern society is less strict about adhering to castes, few stray far from their social path.14


Vudra is the home of Irori, who is one of the core gods of the incredibly diverse and complicated Vudran pantheon.63 The thousand gods of Vudra also include such deities as Chamidu,30 Dhalavei,31 Diomazul,32 Gruhastha,6 Lahkgya33 Likha, Raumya, Suyuddha,6 Vineshvakhi,34 and Vritra.35 It is believed that the Child-Goddess may be also of Vudran origin.36


Paizo published a major article about Vudra in Sixty Feet Under.

For additional as-yet unincorporated sources about this subject, see the Meta page.

  1. Erik Mona, et al. “Appendices” in Campaign Setting, 247. Paizo Inc., 2008
  2. James Jacobs. (June 24, 2008). "Gorrish River", Paizo Messageboard.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 James Jacobs, et al. The Inner Sea World Guide, 206. Paizo Inc., 2011
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 2: The Inner Sea” in Campaign Setting, 154–155. Paizo Inc., 2008
  5. Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 1: Characters” in Campaign Setting, 28–29. Paizo Inc., 2008
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 1: Characters” in Campaign Setting, 39. Paizo Inc., 2008
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Saif Ansari. Vudra, the Impossible Kingdoms” in Sixty Feet Under, 69. Paizo Inc., 2020
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Clinton Boomer. “The Spawn of Rovagug” in The Final Wish, 53. Paizo Inc., 2009
  9. Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 5: The World” in Campaign Setting, 201. Paizo Inc., 2008
  10. 10.0 10.1 Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 5: The World” in Campaign Setting, 202. Paizo Inc., 2008
  11. Tim Hitchcock, et al. “Welcome to the Pathfinder Society” in Seekers of Secrets, 26–27. Paizo Inc., 2009
  12. Mike McArtor. “Chapter 3: People” in Guide to Korvosa, 40. Paizo Inc., 2008
  13. Brian Cortijo, et al. “Bestiary” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 85. Paizo Inc., 2008
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 Saif Ansari. Vudra, the Impossible Kingdoms” in Sixty Feet Under, 70. Paizo Inc., 2020
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Saif Ansari. Vudra, the Impossible Kingdoms” in Sixty Feet Under, 71. Paizo Inc., 2020
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Saif Ansari. Vudra, the Impossible Kingdoms” in Sixty Feet Under, 72. Paizo Inc., 2020
  17. Erik Mona, et al. “Chapter 1: Characters” in Campaign Setting, 13. Paizo Inc., 2008
  18. Paizo referred to cambion planar scions as tieflings until the publication of Player Core. These cambions are unrelated to the type of demon with the same name.
  19. Colin McComb & Hal Maclean. Blood of Fiends, inside front cover. Paizo Inc., 2012
  20. Colin McComb & Hal Maclean. “Tiefling Heritages” in Blood of Fiends, 19. Paizo Inc., 2012
  21. Colin McComb & Hal Maclean. “Tiefling Heritages” in Blood of Fiends, 21. Paizo Inc., 2012
  22. Colin McComb & Hal Maclean. “Tiefling Heritages” in Blood of Fiends, 23. Paizo Inc., 2012
  23. Matthew Goodall. Cult of the Ebon Destroyers, 29. Paizo Inc., 2011
  24. Alexander Augunas, et al. Ratfolk” in Blood of the Beast, 23. Paizo Inc., 2016
  25. Richard Pett. “Escape From Old Korvosa” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 33. Paizo Inc., 2008
  26. Richard Pett. “Escape From Old Korvosa” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 44. Paizo Inc., 2008
  27. John Compton. “Ecology of the Asura” in Temple of the Peacock Spirit, 72. Paizo Inc., 2018
  28. David N. Ross. Catfolk” in Ancestry Guide, 16. Paizo Inc., 2021
  29. Paizo Inc., et al. “People of the Impossible Lands” in Impossible Lands, 23. Paizo Inc., 2022
  30. Richard Pett. “Escape From Old Korvosa” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 37. Paizo Inc., 2008
  31. Matthew Goodall. Cult of the Ebon Destroyers, 3–6. Paizo Inc., 2011
  32. Richard Pett. “Escape From Old Korvosa” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 54. Paizo Inc., 2008
  33. Brian Cortijo, et al. “Bestiary” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 89. Paizo Inc., 2008
  34. Dave Gross. Pathfinder's Journal: Hell's Pawns 5 of 6” in Mother of Flies, 80–81. Paizo Inc., 2010
  35. Brian Cortijo, et al. “Bestiary” in Escape from Old Korvosa, 83. Paizo Inc., 2008
  36. James L. Sutter. “The City” in City of Strangers, 9–10. Paizo Inc., 2010