|Titles||Land of the Pharaohs|
|Ruler||Ruby Prince Khemet III|
|Religions||Abadar, Irori, Lamashtu, Nethys, Norgorber, Pharasma, Rovagug, Sarenrae|
|Images of Osirion|
Source: Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs
Osirion (pronounced oh-SEER-ee-on) is not only one of the oldest human nations currently in existence in the Inner Sea region, but has been one of the most powerful and influential since Earthfall.
- See also: Timeline of Osirion and Pharaoh
The founding of Osirion in -3470 AR is used by historians as the marker for the beginning of the Age of Destiny. Osirion served as the trailblazer, marking humanity's re-emergence from barbarism of the Age of Anguish. A follower of Nethys named Azghaad united the warring tribes along the Sphinx River with the help of the god himself, and became the first pharaoh, a tradition of rulership that has continued (with long interruptions) to the present day. Azghaad I is said to have accomplished great deeds, including the defeat of the spawn of Rovagug Ulunat, and the founding of the capital city of Sothis around the giant beetle's carapace. He also built the first temple to Nethys in Sothis, ushering in the First Age of Osirion. Under the rule of successive God-Kings the land prospered and expanded, at its height ruling much of northern Garund, including land ruled today by the countries of Geb, Katapesh, Nex, Thuvia, and Rahadoum. Osiriontologists often refer to the nation during its roughly 5,000-year span of pharaonic rule between its founding and the Keleshite takeover in 1532 AR (see below) as Ancient Osirion.
A period of decline followed, which was halted when the country was re-unified under the Four Pharaohs of Ascension, marking the country's Second Age. However, the decline continued when the reign of the Four Pharaohs came to an end.
Qadiran satrapy and Keleshite sultanate
Osirian independence ended following the assassination of Pharaoh Menedes XXVI in 1532 AR, which led to the overthrow of the pharaonic dynasty. The country became a satrapy of the Empire of Kelesh.
By 2217 AR, a sect of Sarenrae known as the Cult of the Dawnflower was flourishing in Osirion, but the Qadiri satrapy viewed it as a threat. The cult's leaders were driven into exile in the desert.
In 2253 AR, the Cult assassinated the last Qadiran satrap, ending their exile and leading to the establishment of a line of Keleshite sultans independent of the Empire. 
After 3,000 years, Osirian independence was restored in 4609 AR, when the Keleshite sultan was overthrown and replaced by Prince Khemet I, who traced his ancestry back to the ancient pharaohs.
Khemet I was succeeded by his son Khemet II, who in turn was followed by his son, the current ruler Khemet III. Under his rule, parts of the country have been opened to foreign treasure hunters and researchers.
The Ruby Prince Khemet III rules as the divine monarch of the re-emerging nation. His chief advisor is the invisible fire elemental Janhelia. Some fear that Khemet is becoming embroiled in the complex politics of the elemental clans that inhabit Osirion's desert regions. Khemet and his family are protected by an elite unit known as the Risen Guard. While Khemet's rule is absolute, the day-to-day administration of Osirion is handled by the Council of Sun and Sky. In theory the Council is an independent body, but most Osirians realise the true power is held by the Ruby Prince.
This primarily desert nation occupies the northeastern corner of the continent of Garund. It is bordered on the north by the Inner Sea and the east by the Obari Ocean. Its western border (where it meets the nation of Thuvia) is established by the banks of the Junira River, while the Barrier Wall and the Brazen Peaks provide a natural barrier to the south, where Osirion's former holding of Katapesh stretches into further expanses of desert. The two mountain ranges are separated by the Kho-Rarne Pass which leads to the Mwangi Expanse.
The desert interior dominates the country, which contains some of the largest arid wastelands on Golarion. The western desert has the Alamein Peninsula on the north coast, while to its west lie the the Cliffs of Kusha-ta-Pahk; to the east of the peninsular is the Coast of Graves. South of the peninsular is the Glazen Sheets, separated from the Footprints of Rovagug by the Scarab River. The central desert has the Sahure Wastes to the north and the Parched Dunes to the south. Separating them are the mountain range known as the Pillars of the Sun. The desert is then bisected by the mighty Sphinx River. Most of the country's major cities lie on the river or its tributaries, with the capital, Sothis, at the mouth where it reaches the Inner Sea. The eastern desert has the impressive Underdunes to the north and the Salt Hills to the south, separated by the Shining Mountains. Features of the eastern coastline include the Burning Cape and the Scorpion Coast.
Osirion could not exist without the Sphinx River and its tributaries (the Asp and the Crook). They provide a yearlong source of fresh water to this otherwise inhospitable land, and it is not surprising that the vast majority of the nation's inhabitants live along their banks. The rivers are not without danger, however, as they flood seasonally and are also home to the black-scaled crocodiles known as hetkoshu.
Osirians are wise people who look deep into the past for answers to present troubles. Their sense of history gives them a unique perspective on the ebb and flow of power in the political landscape of the modern Inner Sea. Many folk of Osirion are of old Garundi blood, bronze-skinned, and gifted with the noble bearing of the ancient pharaohs.
A nomadic offshoot of the Garundi, the Yerbira, inhabit Osirion's western desert.
The most common religions are those of Abadar, Nethys, Pharasma, and the other major gods of Osirion, but the country has several unique faiths, including the twin serpent cults of Wadjet and Apep and the dung beetle Khepri, a cult for peasants.
Despite the efforts of the Keleshite rulers, the worship of Osirion's native beast-headed gods has continued to the present. The shaven-headed Osirian priests usually wear white robes with fringed kirtles, and sometimes ornate pectorals or headscarves, veils, or metal or leather masks.
The churches of Sarenrae, Nethys, and Pharasma have played a particularly prominent role in Osirian history. Osirian worshippers of Irori tend to cluster in isolated communities in valleys among the Barrier Wall and Brazen Peaks, including the Temple of An-Alak in the Salt Hills, the Stepped Tower of Djedefar on the Alamein Peninsula, and the ritual center of the Monastery of Tar Kuata beyond the Footprints of Rovagug.
Spellcasters in Osirion have access to some unique spells and abilities. Those practised in metamagic can convert a spell into a thanatopic spell, which can pierce wards against negative energy or use negative energy effects to destroy undead, or a threnodic spell, which can convert mind-affecting spells into effects capable of influencing or controlling undead. The country's most infamous tome of necromancy are the papyrus scrolls known as the Aleh Almaktoum, the Book of the Dead, found in the collections of Osirian archmages. Several uncommon spells are familiar to Osirian magicians, including boneshatter, canopic conversion, sands of time, spectral saluqi, and tomb legion.
Paizo published several major works about or set in Osirion, including Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs, Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, Lost Kingdoms, and the Mummy's Mask Adventure Path.
For additional resources, see the Meta page.
- ↑ A large poster map of Osirion is included in this product: Rob Lazzaretti & Ben Wootten. (2014). Mummy's Mask Poster Map Folio, Paizo Inc. ISBN 978-1-60125-599-0
- ↑ Erik Mona et al. (2008). Campaign Setting, p. 247. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-112-1
- ↑ James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 34. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ Alex Greenshields, Amanda Hamon, Jonathan H. Keith, Ron Lundeen, and David N. Ross. (2014). Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs, p. 5. Paizo Inc. ISBN 978-1-60125-595-2
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Erik Mona and Jason Bulmahn. (2008). Gazetteer, p. 47. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-077-3
- ↑ James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 212. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 35. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 147. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 149. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 147–148. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 148. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 James Jacobs et al. (2011). The Inner Sea World Guide, p. 146. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-269-2
- ↑ Joshua J. Frost and Nicolas Logue. (June 12, 2008). Exploring Paizo's Pathfinder Society Organized Play, Part 3, Paizo Blog.
- ↑ Alex Greenshields, Amanda Hamon, Jonathan H. Keith, Ron Lundeen, and David N. Ross. (2014). Osirion, Legacy of Pharaohs, p. 20. Paizo Inc. ISBN 978-1-60125-595-2
- ↑ Jason Eric Nelson & Amber Stewart. (2008). Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, p. 24–25. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-144-2
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Jason Eric Nelson & Amber Stewart. (2008). Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, p. 24. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-144-2
- ↑ Jason Eric Nelson & Amber Stewart. (2008). Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, p. 8–9. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-144-2
- ↑ Jason Eric Nelson & Amber Stewart. (2008). Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, p. 27. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-144-2
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Jason Eric Nelson & Amber Stewart. (2008). Osirion, Land of Pharaohs, p. 27–28. Paizo Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60125-144-2